Photo Credits


Burke:  Leonard, Elizabeth Jane, and Julia Cody Goodman: Buffalo Bill, King of the Old West; biography of William F. Cody, pony express rider, buffalo hunter, plains scout & guide, master showman. (NY: Library Publishers, 1955)
Hamilton: Kunhardt, Jr., Philip B., and Philip B. Kunhardt III and Peter W. Kunhardt: P.T. Barnum, America’s Greatest Showman.  (NY: Alfred A. Knopf, 1995)


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Hamilton:  Fox, Charles Philip, and Tom Parkinson: Billers, Banners and Bombast: The Story of Circus Advertising.  (Boulder: Pruett Publishing Co., 1985)
Burke:  Gallop, Alan:  Buffafo Bill’s British Wild West.  (Sutton Publishing, 2001)
Mather:  D.H. Hubbard Collection,



World’s Columbian Exposition Images: lagoon:; preistyle: ;Inter-Ocean: author’s collection
Buffalo Bill Images:  Buffalo Bill Museum as credited
Barnum & Bailey Images: Madame Olympia and Great Show On Earth:; Jumbo:
20-Mule Team Images: Soap Chips:; Borax Bill Jr.:; mule team:

World’s Columbian Exposition

Applebaum, Stanley: The Chicago World’s Fair of 1893: A Photographic Record.  (NY: Dover Publications, 1980)

Buffalo Bill’s Wild West

Wilson, R.L., and Greg Martin:  Buffalo Bll’s Wild West.  An American Legend.  (NY: Random House, 1998)

Barnum & Bailey

Jay T. Last Collection, Huntington Digital Library

20-Mule Team Borax